• Writing
    Text Types & Purposes
    W1: Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or the name of the
             book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, 
             and provide some sense of closure.
    W2:  Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some
             facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
    W3:  Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced
             events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to
             signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

    Production & Distribution Of Writing

    W5:  With guidance and support from adults. focus on a topic, respond to
              questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing
              as needed.
              a. May include oral or written prewriting (graphic organizers).
    W6:  With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to 
              produce and publish writing, including digital tools and collaboration with peers.

    Research To Build & Present Knowledge

    W7:  Participate in shared research and writing projects.
    W8:  With guidance and support from adults, recall information from
             experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a


    Conventions of Standard English
    L1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing 
           or speaking.
                a. Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
                b. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
                c. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences. 
                d. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns
                e. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future. 
                f. Use frequently occurring adjectives.
                g. Use frequently occurring conjunctions.
                h. Use determiners.
                i. Use frequently occurring prepositions.
                j. Produce and expand complete simple and compound sentences in response to questions 
                         and prompts (declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory).
                k. Prints with appropriate spacing between words and sentences.
    L2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and
           spelling when writing.
                a. Capitalize dates and names of people.
                b. Use end punctuation for sentences.
                c. Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.
                d. Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently
                          occurring irregular words.
                e. Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling

    Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

    L4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases.
                a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
                b. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
                c. Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms.
    L5: With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and
           nuances in word meanings.
                a. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the
                          categories represent.
                b. Define words by category and by one or more key attributes.
                c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use.
                d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek,
                          glance, stare, glare, scowl
    ) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic)
                          by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
    L6: Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and
           responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple
           relationships (e.g., I named my hamster Nibblet because she nibbles too much
           because she likes that